General features and properties of insertion sequence elements

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Programmed transcriptional frameshifting

Another type of frameshifting may also occur in bacterial insertion sequences. This occurs at the transcriptional level and involves misreading and slippage of RNA polymerase on stretches of A residues. Although no real data is at present available, it may occur relatively frequently (Baranov, et al., 2005, Baranov, et al., 2006, Sharma, et al., 2011)

    References :
  • Baranov PV, Fayet O, Hendrix RW & Atkins JF (2006) Recoding in bacteriophages and bacterial IS elements. Trends Genet 22: 174-181.
  • Baranov PV, Hammer AW, Zhou J, Gesteland RF & Atkins JF (2005) Transcriptional slippage in bacteria: distribution in sequenced genomes and utilization in IS element gene expression. Genome Biol 6: R25.
  • Sharma V, Firth AE, Antonov I, Fayet O, Atkins JF, Borodovsky M & Baranov PV (2011) A pilot study of bacterial genes with disrupted ORFs reveals a surprising profusion of protein sequence recoding mediated by ribosomal frameshifting and transcriptional realignment. Mol Biol Evol 28: 3195-3211.